Ace 031, also known as Activin receptor type-2B, is a human protein encoded by the ACVR2B gene. ACVR2B is classified as an activin type 2 receptor.
Activins are growth factors that belong to the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) family of signaling proteins. Activins signal by utilizing heteromeric complexes of receptor serine kinases, includng two type I (IB and I) and two type II (IIB and II) receptors.
Both of these receptors are transmembrane proteins. Transmembrane proteins are composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with a transmembrane domain as well as a cysteine-rich region and cytoplasmic domain.
Type I receptors are necessary for signaling and type II receptors are necessary for binding ligands. Type I and II receptors together form a stable complex once the ligand binding is complete. This process results in the phosphorylation of type I receptors by the type II receptors. Type II receptors are constitutively active kinases and encode activin A type IIB receptors, which display a 3-4-fold larger affinity for the ligand compared to the activin A type II receptor.
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